Born in the Dutch town of Goedereede in 1973, Jacco Groenendijk started taking bugle lessons at the age of eight. He later studied trumpet with Arie Stolk and played in the De Hoop and Apollo fanfare bands.
Groenendijk studied with Theo Mertens and Ad van Zon at the Rotterdam Conservatoire, and with Willem van der Vliet at the Utrecht Conservatory. He continued to study with Theo Mertens after obtaining his degree. While a student, he worked for Joop van den Ende Theaterproducties, performing in such musicals as Evita (in 1995), West Side Story (1996) and Chicago (1999–2000).
From 2001 to 2005, Jacco Groenendijk was a member of the Marine Band of the Royal Netherlands Navy, going on to join the Netherlands Radio Philharmonic Orchestra (until 2015) and the Netherlands Radio Chamber Philharmonic (until 2013). He has also played in various ensembles, including the Netherlands Wind Ensemble and Combattimento Consort Amsterdam
Since 2000 Groenendijk has regularly worked as a substitute with the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, which he joined as second trumpet player in August 2015.